The Other Opioid Crisis: Hospital Shortages Lead To Patient Pain, Medical Error

I came across this public-accesss story, and wanted to share the perspective:


Even as opioids flood American communities and fuel widespread addiction, hospitals are facing a dangerous shortage of the powerful painkillers needed by patients in acute pain, according to doctors, pharmacists and a coalition of health groups.

The shortage, though more significant in some places than others, has left many hospitals and surgical centers scrambling to find enough injectable morphine, Dilaudid and fentanyl — drugs given to patients undergoing surgery, fighting cancer or suffering traumatic injuries. The shortfall, which has intensified since last summer, was triggered by manufacturing setbacks and a government effort to reduce addiction by restricting drug production.

As a result, hospital pharmacists are working long hours to find alternatives, forcing nurses to administer second-choice drugs or deliver standard drugs differently. That raises the risk of mistakes — and already has led to at least a few instances in which patients received potentially harmful doses, according to the nonprofit Institute for Safe Medication Practices, which works with health care providers to promote patient safety.
In the institute’s survey of hospital pharmacists last year, one provider reported that a patient received five times the appropriate amount of morphine when a smaller-dose vial was out of stock. In another case, a patient was mistakenly given too much sufentanil, which can be up to 10 times more powerful than fentanyl, the ideal medication for that situation.
In response to the shortages, doctors in states as far-flung as California, Illinois and Alabama are improvising the best they can. Some patients are receiving less potent medications like acetaminophen or muscle relaxants as hospitals direct their scant supplies to higher-priority cases. Other patients are languishing in pain because preferred, more powerful medications aren’t available, or because they have to wait for substitute oral drugs to kick in.

The American Society of Anesthesiologists confirmed that some elective surgeries, which can include gall bladder removal and hernia repair, have been postponed.

Even as opioids flood American communities and fuel widespread addiction, hospitals are facing a dangerous shortage of the powerful painkillers needed by patients in acute pain, according to doctors, pharmacists and a coalition of health groups.

The shortage, though more significant in some places than others, has left many hospitals and surgical centers scrambling to find enough injectable morphine, Dilaudid and fentanyl — drugs given to patients undergoing surgery, fighting cancer or suffering traumatic injuries. The shortfall, which has intensified since last summer, was triggered by manufacturing setbacks and a government effort to reduce addiction by restricting drug production.

As a result, hospital pharmacists are working long hours to find alternatives, forcing nurses to administer second-choice drugs or deliver standard drugs differently. That raises the risk of mistakes — and already has led to at least a few instances in which patients received potentially harmful doses, according to the nonprofit Institute for Safe Medication Practices, which works with health care providers to promote patient safety.
In the institute’s survey of hospital pharmacists last year, one provider reported that a patient received five times the appropriate amount of morphine when a smaller-dose vial was out of stock. In another case, a patient was mistakenly given too much sufentanil, which can be up to 10 times more powerful than fentanyl, the ideal medication for that situation.
In response to the shortages, doctors in states as far-flung as California, Illinois and Alabama are improvising the best they can. Some patients are receiving less potent medications like acetaminophen or muscle relaxants as hospitals direct their scant supplies to higher-priority cases. Other patients are languishing in pain because preferred, more powerful medications aren’t available, or because they have to wait for substitute oral drugs to kick in.

The American Society of Anesthesiologists confirmed that some elective surgeries, which can include gall bladder removal and hernia repair, have been postponed.

In a Feb. 27 letter to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, a coalition of professional medical groups — including the American Hospital Association, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists — said the shortages “increase the risk of medical errors” and are “potentially life-threatening.”

In addition, “having diminished supply of these critical drugs, or no supply at all, can cause suboptimal pain control or sedation for patients,” the group wrote.

The shortages involve prefilled syringes of these drugs, as well as small ampules and vials of liquid medication that can be added to bags of intravenous fluids.

Drug shortages are common, especially of certain injectable drugs, because few companies make them. But experts say opioid shortages carry a higher risk than other medications.

Giving the wrong dose of morphine, for example, “can lead to severe harm or fatalities,” explained Mike Ganio, a medication safety expert at the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists.

Marchelle Bernell (Courtesy of Marchelle Bernell)
Calculating dosages can be difficult and seemingly small mistakes by pharmacists, doctors or nurses can make a big difference, experts said.
Marchelle Bernell, a nurse at St. Louis University Hospital in Missouri, said it would be easy for medical mistakes to occur during a shortage. For instance, in a fast-paced environment, a nurse could forget to program an electronic pump for the appropriate dose when given a mix of intravenous fluids and medication to which she was unaccustomed.

“The system has been set up safely for the drugs and the care processes that we ordinarily use,” said Dr. Beverly Philip, a Harvard University professor of anesthesiology who practices at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. “You change those drugs, and you change those care processes, and the safety that we had built in is just not there anymore.”

Dr. Beverly Philip (Courtesy of the American Society of Anesthesiologists)
Chicago-based Marti Smith, a nurse and spokeswoman for the National Nurses United union, offered an example.

“If your drug comes in a prefilled syringe and at 1 milligram, and you need to give 1 milligram, it’s easy,” she said. “But if you have to pull it out of a 25-milligram vial, you know, it’s not that we’re not smart enough to figure it out, it just adds another layer of possible error.”

During the last major opioid shortage in 2010, two patients died from overdoses when a more powerful opioid was mistakenly prescribed, according to the institute. Other patients had to be revived after receiving inaccurate doses.

The shortage of the three medications, which is being tracked by the FDA, became critical last year as a result of manufacturing problems at Pfizer, which controls at least 60 percent of the market of injectable opioids, said Erin Fox, a drug shortage expert at the University of Utah.

A Pfizer spokesman, Steve Danehy, said its shortage started in June 2017 when the company cut back production while upgrading its plant in McPherson, Kan. The company is not currently distributing prefilled syringes “to ensure patient safety,” it said, because of problems with a third-party supplier it declined to name.

That followed a February 2017 report by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration that found significant violations at the McPherson plant. The agency cited “visible particulates” floating in the liquid medications and a “significant loss of control in your manufacturing process [that] represents a severe risk of harm to patients.” Pfizer said, however, that the FDA report wasn’t the impetus for the factory upgrades.

Other liquid-opioid manufacturers, including West-Ward Pharmaceuticals and Fresenius Kabi, are deluged with back orders, Fox said. Importing these heavily regulated narcotics from other countries is unprecedented and unlikely, she added, in part because it would require federal approval.
At the same time, in an attempt to reduce the misuse of opioid painkillers, the Drug Enforcement Administration called for a 25 percent reduction of all opioid manufacturing last year, and an additional 20 percent this year.
“DEA must balance the production of what is needed for legitimate use against the production of an excessive amount of these potentially harmful substances,” the agency said in August.

When the coalition of health groups penned its letter to the DEA last month, it asked the agency to loosen the restrictions for liquid opioids to ease the strain on hospitals.

The shortages are not being felt evenly across all hospitals. Dr. Melissa Dillmon, medical oncologist at the Harbin Clinic in Rome, Ga., said that by shopping around for other suppliers and using pill forms of the painkillers, her cancer patients are getting the pain relief they need.

Dr. Shalini Shah, the head of pain medicine at the University of California-Irvine health system, pulled together a team of 20 people in January to figure out how to meet patients’ needs. The group meets for an hour twice a week.

Dr. Shalini Shah (Courtesy of University of California-Irvine)
The group has established workarounds, such as giving tablet forms of the opioids to patients who can swallow, using local anesthetics like nerve blocks and substituting opiates with acetaminophen, ketamine and muscle relaxants.

“We essentially have to ration to patients that are most vulnerable,” Shah said.

Two other California hospital systems, Kaiser Permanente and Dignity Health in Sacramento, confirmed they’re experiencing shortages, and that staff are being judicious with their supplies and using alternative medications when necessary. (Kaiser Health News, which produces California Healthline, is not affiliated with Kaiser Permanente.)
At Helen Keller Hospital’s emergency department in Sheffield, Ala., earlier this month, a 20-year-old showed up with second-degree burns. Dr. Hamad Husainy said he didn’t have what he needed to keep her out of pain.
Sometime in January, the hospital ran out of Dilaudid, a drug seven times more potent than morphine, and has been low on other injectable opioids, he said.

Because Husainy’s patient was a former opioid user, she had a higher tolerance to the drugs. She needed something strong like Dilaudid to keep her out of pain during a two-hour ride to a burn center, he said.
“It really posed a problem,” said Husainy, who was certain she was in pain even after giving her several doses of the less potent morphine. “We did what we could, the best that we could,” he said.

Bernell, the St. Louis nurse, said some trauma patients have had to wait 30 minutes before getting pain relief because of the shortages.
Dr. Howie Mell (Courtesy of Howie Mell)

“That’s too long,” said Bernell, a former intensive care nurse who now works in radiology.

Dr. Howie Mell, an emergency physician in Chicago, said his large hospital system, which he declined to name, hasn’t had Dilaudid since January. Morphine is being set aside for patients who need surgery, he said, and the facility has about a week’s supply of fentanyl.

Mell, who is also a spokesman for the American College of Emergency Physicians, said some emergency departments are considering using nitrous oxide, or “laughing gas,” to manage patient pain, he said.
When Mell first heard about the shortage six months ago, he thought a nationwide scarcity of the widely used drugs would force policymakers to “come up with a solution” before it became dire.

“But they didn’t,” he said.

Ten Gripes of Buprenorphine Doctors

I recently gave a lecture to medical students about opioid dependence and medication assisted treatment using buprenorphine, methadone, or naltrexone. I was happy to see their interest in the topic, in contrast to the utter lack of interest in learning about buprenorphine shown by practicing physicians. In case someone from the latter group comes across this page, I’ll list a few things to do or to avoid when caring for someone on buprenorphine (e.g. Suboxone).

1. Buprenorphine does NOT treat acute pain, so don’t assume that it will. Patients are fully tolerant to the mu-opioid effects of buprenorphine, so they do not walk around in a state of constant analgesia. Acute pain that you would typically treat with opioids should be treated with opioids in buprenorphine patients. Patients on buprenorphine need higher doses of agonist, usually 2-3 times greater than other patients. Reduce risk of overuse/overdose by providing multiple scripts with ‘fill after’ dates. For example if someone needs opioid analgesia for 6 days, use three prescriptions that each cover two days, each with the notation ‘fill on or after’ the date each will be needed.

2. Don’t say ‘since you’re an opioid addict I can’t give you anything’. There are ways to provide analgesia safely. If you do not provide analgesia when indicated, your patient will only crave opioids more, and may seek out illicit opioids for relief. Unfortunately nobody will criticize you for leaving your patient in pain, but they should!

3. Don’t blame the lack of pain control on laws that don’t exist, for example “I’d like to help you but the law won’t let me.” Patients deserve honesty, even when the truth makes us uncomfortable. We get paid ‘the big bucks’ for tolerating the discomfort that sometimes comes from frank discussions with our patients.

4. Don’t assume your patient can or cannot control pain medications. If a patient has been stable on buprenorphine for years, he/she may have a partner or family member who you can trust to control pain medications. Some patients stable on buprenorphine can control agonists used for acute pain, but I wouldn’t stake my life, or theirs, on that ability. A useful compromise is to prescribe enough pain medication to cover 1-2 days of analgesia on each of several prescriptions, each with a ‘fill after’ date, to reduce the amount of agonist controlled by the patient at one time.

5. Don’t tell your patients that ‘opioids don’t work for chronic pain.’ I see stories on such great medical sources as the ‘Huffington Post’ explaining that ‘opioids never help chronic pain’. In reality, your patients know that opioids DO treat chronic pain, so they will consider you a liar or an idiot if you clam they don’t. The challenge is explaining the risk/reward equation to your patients, and explaining why treating chronic pain with opioids often leads to greater problems, as the risk/benefit equation is changed by tolerance.

6. I know this will cause heads to explode, but don’t assume that chronic pain is always less severe than acute pain. What if your patient’s chronic pain is worse than the typical pain after cholecystectomy or ACL repair? Most doctors would gasp at the idea of recovering from major surgery without opioids. What if the pain from failed back syndrome is worse?! I have had a few patients who, I’m certain, experience a great deal of suffering, and have gone so far as to have brain or spinal cord implants to get relief. I’m not arguing that we treat chronic pain in the same way as acute pain. But we shouldn’t jump to the conclusion that chronic pain isn’t severe enough to warrant opioids in order to dismiss those complaints more easily.

7. Don’t tell your patient to stop taking buprenorphine unless you’ve talked with the doctor who is prescribing that medication, and realize that the doctor you are calling knows more about buprenorphine and addiction than you do.

8. Don’t ask patients ‘how long are you going to take that stuff’ or criticize patients’ use of buprenorphine medications. Likewise psychiatrists shouldn’t tell patients scheduled for knee arthroscopy that the procedure is controversial, or talk patients out of hernia surgery.

9. Don’t assume that the doctor prescribing buprenorphine knows what YOU are doing. Too often patients will tell me about surgery that they failed to discuss in advance, even calling about pain hours after getting home from a procedure they failed to mention. Some people seem to believe that doctors regularly collaborate on their care, even though the opposite is closer to the truth.

10. Don’t assume that unusual or atypical symptoms come fromo buprenorphine. One truism of medicine is that doctors tend to blame unexplained symptoms on whatever medication they know the least about. Fevers of unknown origin, mental status changes, or double vision are not ‘from the buprenorphine!’

Those are the gripes at the top of my list. Did I miss one of yours? Or for patients, have you suffered from breakdowns in the system?

Addendum: 11. When treating post-surgical pain in buprenorphine patients, choose one opioid and stick with it. What often happens is that doctors will use one opioid, say morphine… and when nurses call a few hours later to say the patient is still screaming, they change to a different opioid, then another after that. As a result, the patient is placed on insufficient doses of several opioids, rather than an adequate dose of one medication.

There are two critical issues in treating such patients effectively. First, providing pain relief comes down to competition at the mu receptor. A certain concentration of agonist in the brain and spinal fluid will out-compete buprenorphine and provide analgesia. You cannot get there by adding other opioids together. If you use oxycodone for an hour and then change to dilaudid, you are starting over. Instead, choose one drug, preferably something that can be given intravenously, and stick with it. Morphine is not a good option btw, because of the low potency and histamine releasing properties of that drug.

Second, remember that analgesia and respiratory depression travel together, both mediated by the mu receptor. Anesthesiologists know this principle well… opioid medication can be titrated to respiratory rate, providing that the medication is given IM or IV. If a patient is breathing 28 times per minute, he/she is in pain. If the patient is breathing 6 times per minute, pain is not a problem, and the patient should be monitored for respiratory depression and possible overdose. When treating pain, doctors should aim for a respiratory rate of 14-18 breaths per minute, making sure that the medication is actually getting into the bloodstream (the risk comes when patients are given SQ injections or oral doses of narcotic that enter the bloodstream later, causing toxic blood levels).

Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia Prevented by Buprenorphine?

“Buprenorphine is a kappa receptor antagonist. For these reasons, buprenorphine might be unique in its ability to treat chronic pain and possibly OIH.”

The opioid crisis has been fueled by the use of opioids to treat chronic pain.  Practice patterns have changed, but doctors are still criticized for their roles in the overuse of opioids.  I’ve sat through community ‘heroin forums’ (sometimes on stage) as sheriffs, politicians, and ‘recovered addicts’ firmly pointed fingers at health professionals.  I, meanwhile, kept my finger under the table, but had the thought that some of the people pointing would be the first to complain if they were forced to stop pain medication prematurely for their own good or ‘for the good of the community.’
Doctors can’t see into the future.  I suspect most cases of opioid overuse began with well-intended efforts to provide temporary pain relief.   But then for a variety of reasons things didn’t go as planned.  Maybe the planned knee or back surgery never took place because of patient indecision or insurance problems.  Maybe the lumbar strain didn’t heal after 6-8 weeks the way it was supposed to.  In any case, doctors who work with pain patients know what happens next.  Before the next appointment, the doctor plans to tell the patient that the time has come to stop opioids.  But after that suggestion, the patient replies that the pain is even worse now than when the pain meds were started.  “Actually (says the patient) I was going to ask you to increase the pain medication!”
Some doctors hold fast to their plan and initiate a taper.  Some doctors argue over the issue, and some manage to create enough fear in the office that no patient would dare talk back. Too often, patients are suddenly cut off high doses of opioids, precipitating withdrawal symptoms that drive them toward illicit pills or heroin.  Patients who manage to maintain scripts for opioids embark on a miserable journey that often ends badly.
I’ve converted many pain pill patients to buprenorphine patients over the years.  I could save time using a rubber stamp to document their histories:  (blank)-year-old man was started on pain pills after (blank) injury (blank) years ago; dose was increased over time using oxycodone then OxyContin then fentanyl patches; patient lost the ability to control the medications and ran out early, resulting in discharge from treatment.  Patient presents asking for treatment with buprenorphine.
Many past patients fit this description, riding the gray area between opioid dependence and pain.  Lawmakers and policy-writers seem to believe that most patients are either addicts or pain patients.  Doctors who work in the field know that most patients sit in the middle, with smaller groups on each side. **
I’ve been surprised at how well those pain patients do after changing to buprenorphine.  They usually feel much better overall, which is no surprise given the misery of living according to a cycle of relief and withdrawal.  More surprising is that their pain is reduced, sometimes completely.  I assume the reduction in pain relates to stopping the cycle of relief and withdrawal, although I don’t know the mechanism beyond that idea.  People who take opioids become more ‘somatic’ over time, more and more focused on symptoms including those that warn of impending withdrawal; perhaps buprenorphine reduces that tendency toward somatization.
Which brings us to opioid-induced hyperalgesia or ‘OIH’, where prolonged use of opioids makes pain symptoms worse.  I’m reluctant to go ‘all in’ on OIH, just as I reserved full judgement of the full range of symptoms blamed on TMJ, EBV, IBS, CFS, FM, MCS, WPW, PMS, PMDD, RSD, CRPS, RLS, GAD, SAD, DID, IED, and other ‘initialed diseases’ that have garnered headlines over the years.   (Can you name them all? *** Try THESE )   Attention on OIH has waxed and waned over the years, and is gaining attention now as PROP, the CDC, and SAMHSA talk down opioid use.
LOL.
But seriously, my problem with OIH starts with awareness that pain sensation is very complicated.  Different people describe varying pain intensity for the exact same stimulus.  And even within one patient, intensity varies according to mood, fear, the duration of the pain (expected and actual), the perceived reason for the pain, the perceived harm from the stimulus, the setting (e.g. home vs. laboratory), and many other variables.  It is one thing to see how long it takes a rat to flick its tail when placed over a heat lamp, but another when a human fills out a pain scale.
I also take note of selection bias, a phenomenon that occurs whenever science bumps into political forces where studies citing the occurrence of a phenomenon are more likely to get government funding and editor approval than studies denying the phenomenon.  And no, I’m not a denier—of anything.  But I know bias when I see it. I’ve seen articles that conclude ‘there is not enough evidence to rule OUT the existence of OIH’, which is the opposite of how good science is supposed to be conducted.
You’ll find a great review of OIH here: http://www.painphysicianjournal.com/current/pdf?article=MTQ0Ng%3D%3D&journal=60
A cautious reader of the literature will note that at best, OIH is more of a ‘basic science’ phenomenon than a ‘clinical phenomenon.’   Increased pain sensitivity in response to opioids is subtle.  If it wasn’t, it would have been described decades, even centuries ago.  The linked material references older comments that the authors suggest came from observations of OIH, but to my reading the comments more likely referred to the withdrawal that follows opioid use.  You’ll also notice, if you read the linked article, that most of the studies of OIH in humans look at pain sensitivity in long-term methadone patients.  But you’ll also read that in theory, methadone is one of the least-likely opioids to cause OIH.
Interestingly, the other opioid agent with lower likelihood to cause OIH is… buprenorphine.  From the link above:  Buprenorphine has been shown to be intermediate in its ability to induce pain sensitivity in patients maintained on methadone and control patients not taking opioids. Buprenorphine showed an enhanced ability to treat hyperalgesia experimentally induced in volunteers compared to fentanyl. And spinal dynorphin, a known kappa receptor agonist, increases during opioid administration, thus contributing to OIH. Buprenorphine is a kappa receptor antagonist. For these reasons, buprenorphine might be unique in its ability to treat chronic pain and possibly OIH.
In short, long term use of opioids appears to increase pain sensitivity.  But we are a long way from understanding the extent of that phenomenon.  Some studies suggest that all opioids are not equal in regard to OIH, and I wonder if the reported decrease in pain from relatively minor injuries such as lumbar strain, when people change from opioid agonists to buprenorphine, is caused by a decrease in opioid-induced hyperalgesia.
But then again, maybe those patients just thought they had pain because of a subconscious (or conscious) desire to get pain pills.
For whatever reason, people with chronic pain seem to do well on buprenorphine.  Hopefully all of the concerns over opioids will leave us at least that one treatment option.  Give the extreme safety of buprenorphine, that should be a no-brainer!
**At least that was the case until several years ago, when I began seeing more and more patients who ‘started heroin recreationally’- an oxymoron if there ever was one.
***TMJ = temporomandibular join disorder, blamed for chronic headaches and other symptoms; EBV = Epstein Barr Virus; IBS = irritable bowel syndrome; CFS = chronic fatigue syndrome; FM = fibromyalgia; MCS = multiple chemical sensitivity; WPW = Wolf Parkinson White; PMS = premenstrual syndrome; PMDD = premenstrual dysphoric disorder; RSD = reflex sympathetic dystrophy;  CRPS = complex regional pain syndrome; RLS = restless leg syndrome; GAD = generalized anxiety disorder; SAD = seasonal affective disorder; DID = dissociative identity disorder; IED = intermittent explosive disorder.

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis: How Rare?

I recently read a CBS news story about CHS, or Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome, describing a 100% increase in cases in Colorado since the legalization of marijuana there.  A search for ‘THC’ and ‘CHS’ pulls stories from a range of sources including High Times, Wikipedia, Fusion.net, and Current Psychiatry.  A broader search reveals articles calling the disorder ‘fake news‘.

Most articles about CHS describe the condition as rare, but becoming less rare as the legalization movement takes root and grows.  The syndrome occurs in heavy, long-time users of marijuana who first notice reduced appetite, mild nausea, and sometimes weight loss.  Those symptoms, and the symptoms that follow, are relieved by smoking marijuana, leading those with the condition to become heavier users who come to see marijuana as beneficial to their health.

Over time the symptoms worsen to include paroxysms of severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.  Patients often seek help from a number of health practitioners, including alternative health treatments.  Tests come up negative, and patients continue to turn to marijuana to treat the symptoms– along with hot baths and showers, which for some reason make the pain and nausea more-tolerable.

Since we live in an era of social media I’ll point out that I have no strong feelings toward marijuana.  I don’t kick people off buprenorphine products for testing positive for THC, as it makes little sense to stop treating a potentially fatal disease because the patient smokes pot.  I doubt doctors would withhold cancer treatment because of marijuana use either.  I’m describing my observations only to get the word out about something that doctors are missing.  Over the past 2-3 years I’ve had several patients with symptoms identical to those described in stories about CHS, so I suspect the condition is more common than thought.

The Current Psychiatry article describes possible mechanisms for symptoms of CHS.  The nausea and vomiting may be caused by accumulation of cannabinoids in the lipid tissue of the gut, causing activation of the CB1 receptor in the intestine to override the anti-emetic effects of CB1 activation in the hypothalamus.  Activation of CB1 receptors in the gut slows peristalsis (the motion of the intestines that propels food forward) and dilates the blood vessels to the intestinal system. Hot baths and showers may provide relief by dilating blood vessels in the skin and redirecting blood flow away from the gut.  Other possible causes relate to the effects of specific cannabinoids, or perhaps herbicides or pesticides.
One of my patients had classic symptoms of CHS for several years.  A year ago I had not yet heard of the condition, but noticed that he repeatedly talked about marijuana being a ‘wonder drug’ for disabling stomach pain and nausea, even as he lost weight and his general health deteriorated.  When I asked if he considered that marijuana may actually be harming his health he became angry and defensive, and never returned for follow-up.

Another patient talked about his spouse’s health problems, hoping I would have ideas about the cause of her symptoms that weren’t found through visits to many specialists. Marijuana wasn’t even part of the discussion as he described her severe pain and nausea over the past year that caused her to go to the ER several times each month.  At his last appointment, armed with new knowledge about CHS, I asked him if his wife smoked marijuana.

He said that she not only smoked it, she recently got her ‘medical marijuana’ card because smoking was the only thing that relieved her nausea.  I asked if she ever felt better after a shower, and he said “oh my  gosh, she is in the shower for three hours or more every day with the hot water turned up!”

The big question, of course, will be whether people with similar symptoms will try going without pot for a month, the length of time required for symptoms to fade, and whether clearing their systems of THC actually relieves their symptoms. But other heavy marijuana users with pain and nausea should read up on CHS, and consider a trial off THC.  One month without pot isn’t going to kill you.

Post-op Pain on Suboxone

Many patients on Suboxone or buprenorphine eventually require pain treatment, just like people who aren’t on buprenorphine products.  I’ve written about post-op pain control several times, but I continue to get emails from patients who haven’t seen my comments and who view an upcoming surgery with the same fear experienced by patients before the early 1900’s, when the OR was correctly seen as a horror-chamber.
These patients are often torn between following the treatment plan vs. doing what they have learned may work better.  In all cases, I tell patients that they cannot act in ways counter to what their physician prescribes.  But I often support their intent to ask their doctors to clarify or modify their treatment plans.

Patients write about ‘the look’– the way doctors, nurses, and pharmacists react when patients ask about pain control.  As a recovering addict myself, I know what they are referring to.   Doctors encourage other patients to discuss concerns about pain control, and as long as they have no piercing or tattoos, patients will usually be comforted with assurances that their doctors will take their pain seriously.  But people on buprenorphine often see their doctors roll their eyes, or even say that the opposite is true– that if they have pain, they had better not bother the doctor about it!    Doctors who act that way are asses, of course, and I urge patients to avoid them if possible.  This post is not for those doctors, as they are not likely to ‘get it’ after reading the comments of another doctor— if they would ever read them in the first place!

I’m writing for the doctors who are open to hearing about new ways to help their patients.  I intend to use this post, going forward, to answer the emails from patients about this topic   If you are a physician who received this from a patient, please consider my comments– as I have found the approach described below far more helpful for surgical patients on buprenorphine products than the alternatives described elsewhere.  There was an NIH consensus paper a few years ago for example that described several alternatives, but mostly focused on discontinuing buprenorphine before surgery, then restarting buprenorphine at some point through a standard induction that includes 24 hours of withdrawal in patients already weakened by surgery.  Standard doses of opioid agonists were recommended for pain.  That approach was also described in a flashy article in one of the throw-away journals a month or two ago (i.e. Autumn of 2015).

There are so many problems with that approach:

  • Patients forced to stop buprenorphine before surgery and enter surgery dehydrated and weakened (IF they even managed to stop, as many patients end up staying on buprenorphine covertly– NOT a good situation for surgery.)
  • Buprenorphine discontinuation not an option for emergency surgeries;
  • Constant opioid levels are necessary to avoid withdrawal, before even considering pain control;
  • Buprenorphine is erroneously considered gone, when the long half-life actually assures that buprenorphine is still present;
  • Patients fret and argue over pain control every time the nurses change shifts;
  • Buprenorphine re-induction at some point after surgery, requiring patients to go through withdrawal symptoms;
  • Agonist treatment alone causes tolerance to rise very rapidly, requiring high doses of narcotic at hospital discharge;
  • An increased risk of overdose from narcotic pain medication in patients off buprenorphine;
  • And many other reasons.  Using the ‘discontinuation’ approach, patients end up on a Hellish roller-coaster ride where pain is grossly under-treated and withdrawal symptoms are only 4 hours away, day after day.

I’ve read emails from people whose buprenorphine doctors recommended taking more buprenorphine for post-op pain, or dosing more often.  I’ve read about suggestions to use Tramadol for pain after major surgery(!)
Earlier today I sent a letter in response to a woman who is planning a series of painful procedures.  I’ll share that letter to spare myself some time:

Dear A,

You’ve been through enough misery, and I hope you convince your physician to consider a different approach to your pain. I’ve had patients on buprenorphine go through many surgeries including thoracotomy, nephrectomy, open cholecystectomy, total knee replacement, and rotator cuff repair– all very painful surgeries.  My experience as an anesthesiologist piques my interest in post-op pain control.

My favored approach is very simple.  Maintain buprenorphine, and use oxycodone or other agonists to out-compete buprenorphine at the mu receptor as needed for pain relief. The benefits of the approach are obvious once the prescriber opens his/her mind to the realities of ligand competition.  There is no need to go through withdrawal, no need for ‘comfort meds’ to tolerate the withdrawal, and no need to enter surgery in an already-weakened state. As you know, even minor withdrawal causes people to feel very depressed, lose their appetites, stop sleeping…. is that really any way to go into surgery?

As an aside,  buprenorphine alone does not provide ‘real’ pain control in patients who take chronic buprenorphine.   Yes, buprenorphine seems to reduce pain in people with minor pain issues.  But it is of no use for the pain of major surgery.  Of course in theory, why would buprenorphine treat chronic pain in patients with complete mu tolerance to a medication with a ceiling effect?

A few years ago, an NIH consensus paper described a few approaches to acute pain in patients on buprenorphine. I don’t know who was on that panel, but the paper suggested stopping buprenorphine for several days before surgery and then using agonists. The panel mentioned the approach that I favor near the end of the paper.   I also described my favored approach at an annual meeting of ASAM, in a talk that was very-well received. I was optimistic that the discussion would open enough minds among prescribers to follow the neurochemistry, instead of focusing on the misplaced fear of combining an agonist and a partial agonist.   There are other papers out there– and book chapters– about the effects gained by combining an agonist with a partial agonist. You can find my ASAM slides at www.slideshare.net by searching for ‘junig’ and ‘uncoupling analgesia’.
The ‘uncoupling’ part BTW is what makes my favored approach so valuable, but that gets into the area of chronic pain, which is not entirely relevant to this discussion.  In short, opioid analgesia has always been limited by tolerance and dependence.  I believe that those limits can be removed by combining mu receptor agonists with partial agonists, allowing for pain relief from agonists while partial-agonists prevent euphoria and anchor tolerance at a lower level.

My approach is to reduce buprenorphine to about 4 mg per day.   Higher doses in my experience get in the way of pain control.  I then treat post-op pain as I would in any patient, but using 4 times more agonist (warning– see * below).  I typically prescribe oxycodone, 15 mg tabs,* and direct patients to take one tab every 4 hours as needed. When patients no-longer needs narcotic analgesia, I stop the agonist and have them resume their regular doses of buprenorphine. That’s it.  No tapering, and no withdrawal… just treating patients as I would any other patients, but realizing that mu receptors are competitively blocked, and effective doses of oxycodone must out-compete buprenorphine.

Dilaudid or fentanyl are not necessary. You could approach post-op pain in a very elegant way in a hospital using sublingual buprenorphine, fentanyl infusion, and PCA, but that gets a bit complicated. Oxycodone works fine.   In rare cases my patients required higher doses of oxycodone, but I’ve never had reason to use more than 30 mg.   Oxycodone is typically used every 4 hours.  My buprenorphine patients have found good pain relief from total daily doses of 60-120 mg of oxycodone.  The patients who went to a hospital where I couldn’t control their analgesia, who were told to stop buprenorphine, ended up on much higher doses of oxycodone at discharge.

Advantages of Combined Approach:

There are many advantages to maintaining buprenorphine throughout the perioperative period. The entire process is much simpler, and the patient’s experience is better because there is no euphoria, and no warm rush from oxycodone to rekindle addiction. The pain is relieved, but the reinforcing effects of oxycodone are eliminated.  I assume the that the limits on mu effects by buprenorphine are like a ‘governor’ that limits the speed of fleet vehicles. You can get only so much opioid effect in the presence of buprenorphine, and not enough to cause a ‘high.’

The combined approach also prevents tolerance, which is a greater issue with chronic pain than with post-operative pain. Buprenorphine anchors tolerance at the level yielded by the ceiling effect, allowing agonist effects to continue over time. I’ve treated people with the combination of buprenorphine and oxycodone for over 2 years, and the combination continues to work as well as it did on the first day.

Some prescribers and pharmacists worry about ‘precipitated withdrawal’, but that is not an issue as long as buprenorphine is continued every day. The only way to precipitate withdrawal would be to stop buprenorphine for at least a few days, boost tolerance higher with an agonist, and then give buprenorphine– which would ‘yank’ tolerance back down again. Patients who stay on buprenorphine can add agonists without fear of precipitated withdrawal.

I’ve convinced a few doctors to try this approach, and I’ve received a number of positive reports about the approach.   I’ve described the idea to several pharmaceutical companies as an approach that would revolutionize pain treatment.  Can you imagine pain relief without addiction, without tolerance, and without euphoria?   I realize that the large number of deaths caused by opioid overdose limits interest in opioid analgesia.  But I suspect that a product that combines buprenorphine and an agonist would go a long way to reducing opioid dependence, providing that the two medications were irreversibly bonded together in a combination product.  I have some thoughts about how to do that… but that’s for another day.

It is NEVER safe to prescribe one’s self opioids or other controlled substances, so this discussion is intended to provoke discussion between patients and their doctors.  Patients must realize that there are many things that go into decisions about post-operative analgesia, and NO approach is the right approach for everyone.  Any individual patient may have features to his/her history that make the combination approach inappropriate, or even dangerous.

*Doses described in this post are intended as approximations for consideration by trained and licensed medical professionals.  Doses described may not be safe in some patients, including patients at the extremes of age, patients with respiratory or other chronic illness, patients with central nervous system disorders, or patients on other respiratory depressant medications.

NEVER use opioids except as directed by your own physician.

Opioid Analgesia Without Addiction

I don’t have pull with the addiction-related organizations out there.  I’m never been a joiner, and I tend to notice the problems caused by medical societies over the good things that they supposedly accomplish.    For example PROP, or ‘Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing’, have a specific mission.  Once a group has a mission, any considerations about individual patients go out the window.  PROP has propagated the message that opioids are NEVER beneficial for patients with chronic pain.

Legislators with no knowledge of clinical medicine hear that message, and respond by passing draconian laws that interfere with any considerations of individual patients.  I would guess that the people of PROP pat themselves on the back for encouraging laws that remove physician autonomy.  I’m sure they figure that they are smarter than all the family practice docs out there.  But in reality, they are only destroying the control of doctors over patient care, and handing that care over to politicians.  Way to go, PROP.

In the same way, the societies that hold meetings about meetings, that elect Secretaries who become Vice Presidents who become Presidents, get to publish the articles that describe clinical protocols.  The doc who spends every day talking with patients has no access to these sources, and little ability to influence those protocols.  Sometimes the societies and organizations get things right… and sometimes they get things wrong.  The latter is the case with post-op pain control in patients on buprenorphine products.

I’ve written about this before, as regular readers know.  Over the past 8 years I’ve had dozens, if not hundreds, of patients on buprenorphine undergo surgery.  The surgeries include coronary bypass, thoracotomy, rotator cuff repair, C-section, nephrectomy, total knee or hip replacement… and a host of minor surgeries with scopes and lasers.  I’ve treated these patients in a number of ways, in part because hospitals that provide emergency care have different ways of dealing with post-op analgesia.  I rarely have control over what they do acutely– but I almost-always take over pain control when patients are discharged.

In the past few months there have been several ‘articles’ stating that the best way to handle surgery, in people on buprenorphine products, is to stop the buprenorphine before surgery, and treat pain using opioid agonists.  This opinion is not supported by any data.  It is someone’s opinion– usually someone who has a title, i.e. someone who spends at least some of his/her time in society meetings.  That time is removed from the amount of time that could be spent treating and speaking with patients.  Frankly, the ‘higher’ a doctor is in society circles, the less time they spend in patient care.  That comment will anger the docs who it applies to.  I can hear them now– saying I’m only full of ‘sour grapes’. But maybe those same docs should look in the mirror, and wonder how they ended up as ‘President’ of a society.

I’ve used the approach claimed as best practice in the society journals– i.e stopping buprenorphine before surgery– and the same thing always happens.  Tolerance to opioid agonists rises very rapidly in the post-op period.  Patients are discharged on huge doses of opioid agonists.  And at some point, agonists must be discontinued for 24 hours to allow for re-induction with buprenorphine agents.  I’ve had several recent patients go through this exact process– and my frustration motivates this post.  One guy shot himself in the femur, and the bullet also passed through his lower leg.  He needed fasciotomy to avoid losing the leg. His Suboxone was discontinued at admission, and ten days later he was discharged on 30 mg of oxycodone every 2-3 hours– i.e. over 200 mg per day.  The other person was in a serious car accident, and had multiple fractures—  femur, pelvis, ribs, wrist– as well as internal injuries.  After 3 weeks he was released on over 300 mg of oxycodone per day!

On the other hand, I’ve had many patients go through the surgeries listed earlier while maintained on buprenorphine, 4-8 mg per day.  In ALL cases, they had excellent analgesia with lower doses of oxycodone than in the people who stopped buprenorphine.  Most patients did well on 15 mg of oxycodone every 3-4 hours– a max of 120 mg of oxycodone per day.  In a few cases– i.e. in the most painful operations, in the most sensitive patients– I had to use 30 mg of oxycodone every 4 hours.

The most amazing thing about the combination of buprenorphine and opioid agonists is the absence of tolerance to agonists, when buprenorphine is present.  I’ve had patients with recurrent injuries that required repeated surgeries, including a woman who tore her rotator cuff and the surgical repair THREE times over three months.  She took the same amount of opioid agonist for three months, with no noticeable decrease in efficacy.  After the final operation, after three months on significant amounts of opioid agonist, she simply stopped the agonist and resumed her full dose (16 mg) of buprenorphine.  She had no withdrawal, and not other complications.  She simply stopped the agonist and resumed buprenorphine treatment.

I’ve come to realize that buprenorphine effectively ‘anchors’ tolerance when patients take opioid agonists, as long as the buprenorphine is continued.  Patients always say the same thing:  that the pain was reduced by the agonist, but that it didn’t ‘feel’ like the agonist they used to take.  In fact, patients who could never control pain pills found that they COULD control agonists if they stayed on buprenorphine.

A couple years ago I presented these findings at an annual meeting of ASAM.  The slides can be found here.  I believe that some day, combinations of buprenorphine and opioid agonists will be the standard approach to pain treatment.  The combination allows for opioid analgesia without tolerance, without euphoria, and with little or no risk of addiction.  If THAT doesn’t piqué your interest, you have no business reading about opioid dependence!

I picture combinations of buprenorphine and fentanyl… especially since both are now FDA-approved as transdermal patches.  Or perhaps a combination of fentanyl lozenges and sublingual buprenorphine.  The possibilities are endless.  Throughout history, the miracle of opioid analgesia has been cursed by the attachment to tolerance, dependence, and addiction.

Imagine if that curse was lifted from opioid analgesia.    Can you even dare to imagine that world?  I’m telling you… it is closer than you think—- and there for the taking.

Broken Bones on Suboxone; Need Pain Relief

Originally Posted 1/11/2014
I received the following email from a Suboxone patient (from another practice) after he experienced a painful injury.  He shared what happened at the hospital when he was trying to get relief from pain, while taking Suboxone (the active component is buprenorphine).
Hey there.  Just to let you know, i was on 24 mg of Suboxone when I jumped off a fence and crushed bones in both feet.  The injury was among the most painful things I have gone through in my life.  At the hospital they did not understand Suboxone even though I tried to explain to them how it worked.  They couldn’t get a painkiller to break through and I was nearly passing out from the pain.  They finally used Ketamine and it worked immediately.  However, they only used it 3 times and its effect don’t last more than about 20 minutes in my case.  Then they switched to IV Fentanyl….I’m not sure of the dose but I know it was high and after a few injections they hooked me up to a drip bag.  Just wanted to share this info in case anyone finds themselves in a situation like mine where I was ready to strangle a doctor because they tried all of the regular oxycodone, hydromorphone, morphine, etc. all the while I was almost (or maybe even) in a state of shock from the pain.
Hope this can help someone out in the future.
I wrote back the following message, with a few minor changes:
Thank you for sharing your story.  As you may know, I was an anesthesiologist for ten years before developing my own addiction to pain medications.  I have been in the position, many times, of treating pain in patients after surgeries or accidental injuries.  Pain relief is possible in every case, if a competent doctor takes the time and effort to control the pain.  There are arguments within the field of medicine over the use of narcotics for chronic pain, but those arguments do not extend to acute pain.  There are no reasons a person should be allowed to suffer from pain in a US hospital—beyond incompetence or failure of the system.
Buprenorphine complicates pain treatment in two ways; by blocking mu receptors and by contributing to a higher opioid tolerance. Opioid agonists (pain medications) compete with buprenorphine for binding at mu opioid receptors.  Larger doses of buprenorphine cause greater blockade of mu receptors, requiring larger amounts of agonist to treat pain.  When I read your description of the different things tried, my impression was that your pain control was delayed by your doctors trying too many things, instead of sticking with one thing until it worked.
Some opioids (notably morphine) trigger histamine release, which causes hives, lowers blood pressure, and limits the dose that can be given in a short amount of time.  Large doses of high-potency opioids like fentanyl or sufentanil cause muscles to tighten, and in rare cases cause rigidity of the chest that interferes with breathing.  But that side effect is rare, and not a major concern in modern acute care facilities.
For the most part, oxycodone (oral) or hydromorphone or fentanyl (IV) could be given in almost infinite amounts, and at some dose either medication will provide pain relief.  Doctors should remember their training from medical school, when they learned to focus on the patient rather than the numbers.  In your case, nasal oxygen and pulse oximetry should have been applied, and attention directed to your respiratory rate. Oxycodone (oral) or hydromorphone (IV) should have been titrated upward until your respiratory rate was 12-14 breaths per minute.  At that point you would have been relatively comfortable.
Anesthesiologists regularly use respiratory rate to determine whether additional narcotics are indicated in patients near the end of surgery.  The dose of hydromorphone (Dilaudid) necessary in your case may have been high, but respiratory rate decreases gradually as opioid effect increases and pain is relieved, allowing for safe use of virtually any amount of narcotic. The term for this type of care is ‘titrating to effect.’ With appropriate monitoring (present in every ER, OR, recovery room, or ICU), titrating in this way is very effective.  Some hospitals place limits on intravenous opioid doses on general med/surg units, but there are no such limits in units with 1:1 nursing, oxygen, and pulse-oximetry.
There were other ways to provide pain relief, depending on whether you were the hospital CEO, a major donor, or a guy labelled a ‘drug addict.’  They could have placed an epidural and run local anesthetic at a dose low-enough to allow you to walk with assistance while greatly reducing your pain.  Or they could have used a higher dose of anesthetic that provided complete pain relief.  Higher doses of anesthetic cause temporary muscle weakness that may have kept you from walking, but you probably weren’t walking anyway, given the injuries you described.
Readers are invited to use the ‘share’ button to create a print-friendly version, and to place a copy in your wallet—in case you ever find yourself in a buprenorphine knowledge-free zone!

Suboxone Patient Needs Surgery, Refused Pain Control

First Posted 10/21/2013
I have received MANY messages over the years from patients on buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone) who required surgery, but whose doctors refused to provide post-op analgesia.  Those of you not on Suboxone– can you imagine having surgery, and being told that ‘it is too much hassle to give you any medicine for pain relief’?
Below is a comment to my last post, followed by my suggestion.  I am usually not a fan of getting medical boards stirred up over other doctors’ business, but this type of situation is RIDICULOUS, and must be stopped.
The comment:
I’m scared to death!!  I have been on Suboxone for over a year.  Previous to  that, I was on it for a couple of years before stopping its use.  At that time I  developed some gall stones and presented to the ER in pain I can not even begin  to explain.  Ultimately the stone passed but I need to have the gall bladder  removed.  I figured this was a good time to maybe get off of Suboxone.  I knew I  would be getting some standard opiates after surgery to manage pain so I thought  it could manage the Suboxone withdrawal as well.
It was an awful experience and I eventually resumed Suboxone.  It has been a  little over a year now back on.  About 8-12 mg/day.  So about a couple of months  ago, I needed shoulder surgery.  Here we go again.  I tapered back on the sub  and went through with the labrum repair.   I did discuss it with my  psychiatrist but he basically said he wanted NOTHING to do with the acute  pain management portion of this surgery.  And I actually experienced very little  pain post-surgery and went almost immediately back on  sub.
Now I have had complications mainly from scar tissue.  Tremendous pain.  My  ortho recommended a surgical manipulation to clean out the scar tissue.  So I  went along and although the post surgical pain was much worse this time, I got  through it OK and back on sub.  Now I need to to go back to my psychiatrist for  a refill on the sub.  But, because I did not discuss THIS event with him (I  already knew he didn’t want anything to do with it) he said he would not refill  or treat me anymore.  So now I am one year in on Suboxone and being told to take  a flying you know what because of surgery I needed.  I just feel that if I’m on  Suboxone, I am at the mercy of whomever is treating me.  It is like blackmail.  
My response:
Shoulder surgery can be one of the most painful operations to endure.  If patients have inadequate pain relief after surgery, they risk developing scar tissue formation because of inadequate movement and physical therapy.  In other words, you second shoulder surgery might have been required BECAUSE you didn’t get pain meds after the first surgery.
Even if that is not exactly the case, people on Suboxone deserve pain relief after surgery.  Can any of you non-Suboxone patients imagine having a surgeon say ‘you will need pain meds after surgery, but it is too much hassle so I’m not going to give you any’?
I suggest sending a letter to your medical licensing board and saying something like this:
I am prescribed buprenorphine/naloxone, an FDA-indicated treatment for opioid dependence, by Dr. Whatever.   That doctor is certified to prescribe buprenorphine and Suboxone, and so should be aware of the proper way to treat post-operative pain in patients on that medication (as described inthis article).  I realize that there is a certain stigma for addiction even for those of us trying to do the right thing with appropriate medication— but refusing to treat post-operative pain is not consistent with the Hippocratic Oath.  Because my doctor simply refused to ‘get involved’ with treating my surgical pain, I was forced to endure the pain of surgery without any significant postoperative pain control– a level of care that would not be tolerate even for a family pet.   I wish to speak to someone at the board about the postoperative care that I did not receive.
Will it help?  I have no idea.  But the ONLY way things will change is if enough people start to complain.  Good luck.

Taking Buprenorphine, Having Surgery

Originally Posted 8/12/2013
I will get to ‘Part II’, but today I talked with a patient about something that happens too often, that deserves to be pointed out.  The person was in the ER with an injury that resulted in tib/fib francture.  The ER doc provided no analgesia, in the ER or at discharge, telling the patient “you would get sick if I gave you pain medicine because you are on Suboxone.”
I have a few paragraphs typed up that I send to dentists, surgeons, and other physicians when a patient on buprenorphine has a painful procedure.  I am pasting it below so that it can be copied, printed, and given to physicians to encourage them to do a bit of continuing medical education on the topic.  Those of you who are already enlightened, please leave comments if you see something that you would change.   I have literature to back up this type of approach;  send me an email if you’d like the reference.
Painful Procedures and Buprenorphine Patients
Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist that is used for several indications.  In low doses—less than 1 mg/day—buprenorphine is used to treat pain (e.g. Butrans transdermal buprenorphine).  In higher doses i.e. 4 – 24 mg per day, buprenorphine is used as a long-term treatment for opioid dependence and less often for pain management.  At those higher doses, Buprenorphine has a unique ‘ceiling effect’ that reduces cravings and prevents dose escalation.  Patients taking higher dose of buprenorphine, trade name Suboxone or Subutex, become tolerant to the effects of opioids, and require special consideration during surgical procedures or when treated for painful medical conditions.
There are two hurdles to providing effective analgesia for patients taking buprenorphine:  1. the high opioid tolerance of these individuals, and 2. the opioid-blocking actions of buprenorphine.  The first can be overcome by using a sufficient dose of opioid agonist, on the order of 60 mg per day of oxycodone-equivalents or more.  The second can be handled by either stopping the buprenorphine a couple weeks before agonists are required—something that most patients on the medication find very difficult or impossible to do—or by reducing the dose of buprenorphine to 4-8 mg per day, starting the day before surgery and continuing through the post-op period.  Given the long half-life of buprenorphine, it is difficult to know exactly how much remains in the body after ‘holding’ the medication.  That fact, along with the difficulty patients have in stopping the medication, leads some physicians (including myself) to use the latter approach- i.e. to continue 4 mg of buprenorphine per day throughout the postoperative period.  People taking 4-8 mg of daily buprenorphine say that opioid agonists relieve pain if taken in sufficient dosage, but the subjective experience is different, in that there is less ‘euphoria.’
Important points:
Patients on daily maintenance doses of buprenorphine do NOT receive surgical analgesia from buprenorphine alone, as they are tolerant to the mu-opioid effects of buprenorphine.
The naloxone in Suboxone does not reach the bloodstream in significant amounts, and has no relevance to the issue of post-operative pain and Suboxone/buprenorphine.
Discontinuation of high dose buprenorphine/Suboxone results in opioid withdrawal symptoms within 24-48 hours, similar to the discontinuation of methadone 40 mg/day.
Normal amounts of opioid pain medication are NOT sufficient for treating pain in people on buprenorphine maintenance.
Opioid agonists will NOT cause withdrawal in people taking buprenorphine.  Initiating buprenorphine WILL precipitate withdrawal in someone tolerant to opioid agonists, unless the person is in opioid withdrawal before initiating buprenorphine.
Non-narcotic pain relievers CAN and should be used for pain whenever possible in people on buprenorphine to reduce need for opioids. Note that Ultram has opioid and non-opioid effects; the opioid effects are blocked by buprenorphine.
I have had success in people taking 4 mg of buprenorphine/day, using oxycodone, 15-30 mg every 4 hours.  Some patients can control their own intake of oxycodone while on buprenorphine, but some patients CAN’T.  Overdose IS possible, if patients take excessive amounts of the opioid agonist. Consider providing multiple prescriptions with ‘fill after’ dates, each for a very short period of time (e.g. 2 days each) to that patients do not have access to large amounts of opioids at one time.
For longer post-operative periods I have used combinations of long and short-duration agonists, e.g. Oxycontin 20 mg BID plus oxycodone, 15 mg q4 hours PRN.
The risk of death is significant for opioid addicts not on buprenorphine.  Buprenorphine/Suboxone has opioid-blocking effects that reduce risk of overdose and death.  Asking a person to stop or ‘hold’ their Suboxone is introducing significant risk of injury.  Opioid addicts are NOT generally able to stop Suboxone without replacing it with illicit opioids.
J Junig MD PhD

The Pain Clinic: Your Money’s Worth?

Originally Posted 7/18/2013
Like most of you, I’m not thrilled with modern healthcare.  I miss how things were twenty years ago, when I had a sense of ‘having a doctor’ who actually knew me, who had my best interests in mind.  I remember my father, a defense attorney in a small town in Wisconsin, telling me about the state’s ban on advertising by lawyers – a once-debated issue that is hard to visualize in the current era.  He believed the ban was a positive thing, helping keep the legal profession honest and avoiding the appearance of impropriety.   I remember comparing the situation to medicine and thinking ‘of course the ban is a good thing; just think of what society would think about DOCTORS, if they hung billboards for their services!
Those debates must appear bizarre to young people now, who can’t drive a mile without hearing or seeing ads urging people to sue over work grievances, accidental injuries, discrimination, medication side effects, malpractice… while hospitals and doctors compete for space for their own ads for pain clinics, wellness centers, hip and knee replacements, or robotic surgery.
Billboards announce the next great thing that one hospital has that others don’t, one medical gimmick replacing another.  ‘Pain treatment’ is one of the biggest healthcare scams of the past 20 years, with ads promising treatment for chronic pain in an ‘advanced’ or ‘collaborative’ manner.   The scam is easy to see if one drops all positive assumptions about medicine—and health insurance– and observes what happens to patients who use pain clinics.  Follow two hypothetical patients, one with insurance and another with no money or insurance, with the exact same injury—let’s say back pain from lifting crates in a factory every night for several years. Their experiences will demonstrate why being insured is not always in one’s best interest.

Epidural injection
Are epidurals worth the money for chronic pain treatment?

Our uninsured man develops pain in his lower back that does not extend into his legs, without leg weakness or incontinence.  He goes to urgent care and pays cash for the visit, and tells the doctor that he can’t afford to be referred anywhere.  The doc tells him to avoid heavy lifting for a week, and when he returns to work, to lift with his legs and knees instead of bending his back.  He is told to stretch at least 30 minutes every morning and evening and to exercise each day.  Back pain usually comes from a combination of ‘pain generators’ in muscle, bones, tendons, ligaments, and nerves in the lower back.   But the body has amazing recuperative powers, and if our hypothetical patient stretches, exercises, and avoids repeat injury, he will get better over several weeks.  Not a bad outcome for $150!
The guy with insurance goes to his doctor, who prescribes 90 tablets of Percocet and schedules an MRI.  This doctor doesn’t explain the need for stretching, assuming that the patient will hear all that from the next doc he is referring to… or maybe he recommends stretching and exercise, but the Percocet helps the patient feel less restless while sitting in front of the TV, reducing the stretching or exercising that would have helped him feel better.  When the MRI shows ‘degenerative disk disease’ (as it always does in people over 40), the doc refers him to a neurologist for EMGs.  The patient meanwhile sees his chiropractor for 5 ‘adjustments’ per week.  The neurologist refers him to a physical medicine and rehab doc, who orders physical therapy.  All of these steps in the process extract their pound of flesh, paid by either the patient or society (through higher insurance rates).
The people who are getting rich in medicine know that it’s all about PROCEDURES.   Our insured patient already paid over $1000 for his share of the costs for a lumbar spine MRI (not to mention the plain films and a CT scan done first, just in case they might be helpful).  He or his insurer paid another grand for the EMG.  The chiropractor cost another 1-4 grand, depending on the patient’s zip code.
The money really starts to flow when the rehab doc sends him to a pain clinic.  The pain clinic starts with more x-rays, CT, and MRIs, claiming that THEIR techniques will give a better look at things that the others may have missed.   For the most common diagnoses—degenerative disc disease, lumbar strain, or facet arthropathy– treatment choices include lumbar epidural steroid injections, selective nerve root injections, and local anesthetic ‘trigger point’ injections to relax tightened muscles.  The doctor’s charge to do an epidural or nerve root injection?  About $500-$1200, for a procedure that takes about 15 minutes.  An efficient doc could easily do 10-12 injections per day.  If the doc attended one of those meetings that teach ‘maximizing reimbursement’—meetings often held on cruises or tropical islands—the doc calls his office an ‘ambulatory care center’ so that he can bill ‘facility fees’, turning a $700 epidural into a $5000 ‘short stay.’
I hear what you’re thinking—that relief from back pain is WORTH the $5,000-$10,000 cost for this patient.  What if the procedure provides only partial relief—the typical result?  Or What if the epidural steroid injection only MIGHT provide pain relief— but probably WON’T?  Is it still worth as much?  What if the pain relief won’t start for a few weeks and only lasts a month or two, and then the shot must be repeated?  What if the injection can be done only 3-4 times per year, and the patient has less than a month of relief each time.  Is 3 months of moderate reduction in pain worth $15,000?
The scam is aided by a simple fact that patients often forget: most minor injuries will heal on their own without medical intervention, as long as re-injury is avoided.   It is no coincidence that many medical procedures or treatments take ‘a few weeks’ to work, the amount of time most often associated with natural healing.  You’ve heard the joke….  With treatment, you’ll improve in 14 days; otherwise a couple weeks!  Present-day back injuries last about as long as they did 50 years ago—even though we now spend tens of thousands of dollars per injury, rather than a few weeks of ‘taking it easy.’
I’m taking care to present examples that give medicine the benefit of the doubt.  I’m not mentioning the many injections done on people despite clear evidence, on exam or MRI, that the injection will do nothing for their pain.  I’m not talking about trigger injections (done thousands of times each day throughout the US) that hurt like blazes during the shot, giving the illusion of pain relief (and nothing else) when the needle is removed.  I’m not talking about the many MRI’s, ultrasounds, CTs, and EMGs that could be replaced by a smart doctor with basic physical examination skills.
And I’m not talking (until now) about the people who suffer from iatrogenic addiction—- those who go to pain clinics for aches and pains that will either gradually go away or won’t ever go away, that in either case have a trajectory of recovery that can’t be altered by the pain clinic.  The patients are prescribed opioids, and asked to return for one procedure after another.  The patients notice that the procedures are doing nothing for the pain, but they return over and over for refills on the pain pills that they now physically depend on.
The insurer eventually balks at paying for more procedures… and at this same point the pain clinic docs decide that further attempts at pain relief would be pointless.  The doc tells the patient that since he is doing nothing but prescribing pain pills, the patient should go back to his primary care doctor and never return to the pain clinic (unless a new, reimbursable injury comes along).  The referring doctor is not comfortable prescribing the same large dose of narcotics, and tells the patient to ‘taper off the pain pills’—- something that most people just can’t do.  The patient inevitably violates the opioid treatment contract by asking for early refills, smoking marijuana, missing an appointment, running out of money to pay for visits, seeing another doctor, using the wrong pharmacy, etc…. allowing the doctor to blame the patient for breaking the rules, requiring discharge.